Resources

Showing results 1 - 88 of 88

Author(s)
Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Delaware

This report consists of a literature review and in-depth interviews with subject matter experts in the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) program area. The goal was to compare Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) HPwES Programs with peer-programs across the United States. The report also identifies key metrics and emerging trends regarding program design.

Author(s)
Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Delaware

Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) completed a process evaluation to assess the overall effectiveness of program operations. Evaluation activities included reviewing program materials, assessing the program flow, conducting in-depth interviews with program staff and implementers, and conducting surveys with contractors and customers. This report summarizes the key findings and recommendations from these process evaluation activities.

Author(s)
Efficiency Vermont
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Efficiency Vermont

This report provides an annual savings claim summary and includes case studies and customer testimonials from homeowners, towns, and businesses that Efficiency Vermont served in 2016.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.
Publication Date

This report is an update of findings from three prior evaluations of Eversource's Home Energy Reports (HERs) Pilot Program. The HERs pilot program began in January 2011. The pilot program randomly selected residential customers to whom it sent reports rating their energy use, comparing it to that of their neighbors, and suggested ways for the households to save energy.

Author(s)
Navigant Consulting, Inc.
Publication Date

This study identifies actionable strategies and innovations to improve the multifamily program performance, realization rates, and overall program cost-effectiveness for both the residential and commercial sectors.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.,
The Cadmus Group, Inc.
Publication Date

This report for the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Board provides a review of best practices in impact evaluation, recommendations for calculating oil and propane savings, and discusses the impact evaluation findings for the Home Energy Services (HES) and Home Energy Services-Income Eligible (HES-IE) Programs. This best practices review provides an overview of key evaluation protocol and guideline documents.

Author(s)
The Cadmus Group, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Focus on Energy

This Technical Reference Manual (TRM) defines the consensus calculations of the electric and natural gas energy savings and the electric demand reductions, achieved from installing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures that are supported by Focus on Energy programs.

Author(s)
Navigant Consulting, Inc.,
ILLUME Advising, LLC
Publication Date

This report presents the results of the first‐year process and impact evaluation of Berkshire Gas' Home Energy Report (HER) program. The primary objective of the program is to provide residential households with information on their gas consumption and tips on how to save energy to prompt them to take action to reduce their natural gas usage.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Eversource,
United Illuminating,
Connecticut Home Energy Solutions (HES),
Mass Save,
National Grid,
Efficiency Maine,
Efficiency Vermont,
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)

This report identifies opportunities for Connecticut's Home Energy Solutions program (HES) to increase savings related to air sealing, duct sealing, and insulation.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Eversource,
United Illuminating,
Connecticut Home Energy Solutions (HES),
Energize Connecticut

This report is the process evaluation of the Connecticut Multifamily (MF) Initiative, which leveraged the state's Home Energy Solutions (HES) and Home Energy Solutions-Income Eligible (HES-IE) programs. The objective of this process evaluation is to provide actionable recommendations about how to improve the design, delivery, and administration of the MF Initiative.

Author(s)
The Cadmus Group, Inc.
Publication Date

The COOL SMART impact evaluation team conducted an in situ study of ductless mini‐split heat pumps (DMSHPs) in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. This report presents the consumption and savings analysis of the DMSHP study.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.,
Energy Futures Group
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Efficiency Maine

This report presents the results from a comprehensive impact and process evaluation of Efficiency Maine's Low-Income Multifamily Weatherization Program.

Author(s)
EMI Consulting
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energy Upgrade California

This report presents the process evaluation results on the statewide Home Upgrade Program and includes findings on program operations, participant engagement, non-energy impacts, contractor characteristics, and contractor-customer interactions.

Author(s)
Navigant Consulting, Inc.,
ILLUME Advising, LLC
Publication Date

This report presents findings of a process evaluation of Cape Light Compact's Creating Awareness for Power Efficiency Initiative, which included in-depth interviews with 27 customers of varying participation levels. It also includes the results of an impact evaluation using econometric analysis to estimate savings.

Author(s)
DNV GL
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
National Grid

This report presents the results of the evaluation of National Grid Rhode Island's 2014 EnergyWise program. EnergyWise is designed to achieve energy savings in single family (1-4 unit) residential homes by directly installing efficient lightbulbs and water heating measures, providing devices for homeowner use, and offering building shell retrofit rebates.

Author(s)
DNV GL
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
National Grid

This report provides the electric and natural gas impacts from the suite of National Grid Multifamily Retrofit Programs as determined through a billing analysis.

Author(s)
Chris Baker, Arizona Public Service
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Arizona Public Service (APS)

This presentation discusses process management improvements that Arizona Public Service made to streamline their program and advance home energy upgrades.

Author(s)
Navigant Consulting, Inc.,
ILLUME Advising, LLC
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
National Grid,
Eversource

This report summarizes the impact analyses of National Grid's and Eversource Energy's Home Energy Report (HER) programs. The evaluation team conducted three distinct impact analyses related to these HER programs: Cohort-Specific Impact Analysis; Mapping Analysis; and Dual Treatment Analysis.

Author(s)
U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date

Volume 3 of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Evaluation Report statistically identifies factors associated with successful residential energy upgrade programs using a survey sampling, cluster analysis, and multivariate regression approach.

Author(s)
U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date

Volume 6 of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Evaluation Report provides findings from a comprehensive impact, process, and market effects evaluation of the program period, spanning from September 2010 through August 2013. This volume includes case studies that describe successful strategies that programs used during the evaluation period.

Author(s)
UIL Holdings Corporation,
Eversource Energy
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Eversource,
United Illuminating,
Connecticut Home Energy Solutions (HES),
Energize Connecticut

This technical reference manual provides detailed, comprehensive documentation of resource and non-resource savings corresponding to the Energy Efficiency Fund program and individual Conservation and Load Management (C&LM) program technologies.

Author(s)
Efficiency Maine Trust
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Efficiency Maine

This Multifamily Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs) provide documentation for the Trust's calculation of energy and demand savings from energy efficiency measures.

Author(s)
Research Into Action, Inc.,
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)

Because of its potential to reduce customers’ first costs and leverage private funds, financing has been increasing in importance as a strategy for facilitating energy upgrades as program administrators seek to meet ambitious goals in a shifting energy efficiency landscape. This paper evaluates the experience of BBNP grantees to identify how programs can most effectively integrate loan offerings into their broader efforts to promote energy efficiency upgrades. The paper also identifies best practices from grantees’ experience related to integrating financing into program outreach and trade ally interactions.

Author(s)
Weatherization Assistance Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Weatherization Assistance Program

The Recovery Act Evaluation was performed to provide information on the costs and benefits of WAP services in different parts of the country and for different types of housing. It was also performed to provide a comprehensive picture of the Program (including the characteristics of the clients, housing stock, and service providers), assess program administration, document experiences during the Recovery Act period, and conduct several special studies.

Author(s)
Weatherization Assistance Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Weatherization Assistance Program

The Retrospective Evaluation was performed to provide information on the costs and benefits of WAP services in different parts of the country and for different types of housing. It was also performed to provide a comprehensive picture of the Program (including the characteristics of the clients, housing stock, and service providers) and assess program administration.

Author(s)
Honeywell
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
New Jersey Clean Energy Program

This study examined consumer awareness and opinions concerning the New Jersey Clean Energy Program (NJCEP). Research areas included New Jersey homeowners' awareness of NJCEP, an assessment of attitudes towards energy efficiency, the main benefits associated with energy efficiency, key drivers associated with purchasing energy efficient products, the best methods for increasing consumers awareness of NJCEP, and obstacles to implementing energy efficiency measures in the home.

Author(s)
NMR Group, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Eversource,
United Illuminating,
Connecticut Home Energy Solutions (HES),
Energize Connecticut

The study involved on-site visits to 180 single-family homes across Connecticut. The team assessed compliance with the weatherization standard using both the prescriptive and performance paths and made recommendations to improve program quality.

Author(s)
Efficiency Vermont
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Efficiency Vermont

This report was prepared to provide an overview and analysis of results and lessons learned under Efficiency Vermont’s program from 2011-2013.  The aim was to explore the factors that motivate customers to initiate and complete retrofit projects, how have these factors influenced the growth and development of the program, and opportunities to update and evolve the program.

Author(s)
Energize Phoenix
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Phoenix

This summary report provides scientific results, lessons learned, and recommendations for driving energy efficiency in existing buildings on an urban scale. It includes program marketing lesson learned, such as: personal outreach and call to action events are critical marketing opportunities.

Author(s)
U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Illinois Home Performance with Energy Star

This report builds and expands off of previous research by collecting and evaluating data from 800 Illinois Home Performance (IHP) retrofits. This study investigates homeowner measure package choices in the Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) program compared to cost-optimal choices determined through Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) modeling software.

Author(s)
DNV KEMA Energy & Sustainability
Publication Date

This report documents findings and recommendations from an impact evaluation of the California Energy Commission’s California Comprehensive Residential Retrofit program, a statewide energy upgrade program funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The program funded local and regional subrecipients to develop and test initiatives aimed at transforming the residential energy upgrade market and building an infrastructure for whole-building energy upgrades. These local and regional governments collaborated with California’s major utilities to jointly conduct the statewide Energy Upgrade California program.

Author(s)
National Association of State Energy Officials
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
National Association of State Energy Officials

The Multi-State Residential Retrofit Project is a residential energy-efficiency pilot program, funded by a competitive U.S. State Energy Program (SEP) award through the U.S. Department of Energy. The Multi-State Project operates in four states: Alabama, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Washington. During the course of this three-year process evaluation, Cadmus worked closely with NASEO and the four states to collect information about the programs from many perspectives, including: State Energy Office staff, program implementers, homeowners, auditors/contractors, real estate professionals, appraisers, lenders, and utility staff. This report discusses: the project’s context; its goals; the evaluation approach and methods; cross-cutting evaluation results; and results specific to each of the four states.

Author(s)
TecMarket Works
Publication Date

This evaluation plan for the New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission includes a market assessment framework which includes indicators of progress toward market transformation; evaluation recommendations for the 2015-2016 program implementation period; and a 6-year evaluation plan for each program or customer sector.

Author(s)
Center for Energy Economic and Environmental Policy
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
New Jersey Clean Energy Program

This evaluation and research plan sets out a proposed process for establishing and executing a detailed evaluation and research plan for New Jersey's Clean Energy Program.

Author(s)
APPRISE Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
New Jersey Clean Energy Program

This memo provides a review of the New Jersey Comfort Partners Energy Saving Protocols, recommends changes to the calculations and additional calculation protocols for measures not included, and calculates engineering estimates for those proposed energy savings formulas.

Author(s)
iSpring
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Philadelphia Energy Works

The purpose of this report, prepared by sustainability consulting firm iSpring, is to provide the results of the EnergyWorks program to the contractors and auditors who participated, along with information on lessons learned over the course of the program that might prove helpful in their future work.

Author(s)
Danielle Sass Byrnett, U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date

This presentation provides an overview of the results and lessons learned from 41 community partners that participated in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. It also provides an overview of the Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center.

Author(s)
Cynthia Adams, Local Energy Alliance Program,
Larry Earegood, Consumers Energy (MI),
John Schott, NYSERDA,
Gavin Hastings, Arizona Public Service,
Emily Salzberg, Washington State University Energy,
Adam Buick, Community Power Works (WA),
Bob Knight, BKi
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Arizona Public Service (APS),
Community Power Works,
Energy Upgrade California,
Local Energy Alliance Program (LEAP),
Michigan Home Performance with ENERGY STAR,
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA),
RePower Kitsap

Quick summaries of strategies various programs have used to improve the efficiency of delivering efficiency.

Author(s)
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA)

This report presents the impact evaluation conducted of the 13 programs in the Southeast Consortium Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP).

Author(s)
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA)

This report provides an independent analysis of the job creation impact of DOE's investment in energy efficiency programs, from 2010 to 2013. The analysis calculates the job creation results that would have occurred in the Southeast, based on the prevailing economic conditions from 2010 to 2013, had DOE invested in sectors other than energy efficiency.

Author(s)
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA)

This report demonstrates the results achieved to date by the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance. It highlights the experiences of Consortium programs, their successes driving further investments in energy efficiency improvements, and the challenges that hindered their progress. It also details the infrastructure, resources, and opportunities that support the deployment of energy efficiency programming, and the approaches that the Consortium has found best suited to the region.

Author(s)
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA)

This report provides an independent analysis of the economic performance of SEEA's 13-city, U.S. Department of Energy-funded energy efficiency upgrade consortium from 2010 to 2013. It estimates the net impacts of SEEA's energy efficiency programs on the economy of the southeast region as a whole, and on the economies of the states with participating programs.

Author(s)
Navigant, Inc.
Publication Date

This report presents impact evaluation results for the Energy Savers program for large multi-family buildings. The Energy Savers program is run by CNT Energy and Community Investment Corporation. Initiated in January 2008 and now in its fifth year of existence, the Energy Savers program involves a variety of services to promote energy efficiency improvements for multi-family residential buildings of 5-50 units in the affordable housing market segment.

Author(s)
Research Into Action, Inc.
Publication Date
This document presents the findings from the preliminary impact evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The overall objective of the preliminary impact evaluation was to develop independent, quantitative estimates of BBNP's economic impacts and energy savings for projects completed from the onset of programmatic activities through 2012.
Author(s)
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA)

This interim evaluation report examines the design, delivery, and market effects of each of the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance's (SEEA) thirteen sub-grantee programs and identifies opportunities to increase each program's success, and quantifies and verifies the energy savings achieved through the programs' funded home energy improvements and the cost-effectiveness of those savings.

Author(s)
Small Town Energy Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Small Town Energy Program (STEP)

STEP was developed with a mission to "create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S." This final technical report summarizes the program's comprehensive energy evaluations for homes.

Author(s)
Local Energy Alliance Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Local Energy Alliance Program (LEAP)
This presentation explains the pro forma spreadsheet used by Virginia's Local Energy Alliance Program to evaluate program impact.
Author(s)
Energize Phoenix
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Phoenix

This report provides results, lessons learned and recommendations for driving energy efficiency in existing building on an urban scale based on the second year of the Energize Phoenix energy efficiency program.

Author(s)
Navigant, Inc. (Prepared for Boulder County)
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
EnergySmart Colorado

This progress report provides community members and others interested in EnergySmart with a clear snapshot of its progress. The report also provides a timeline of energy efficiency policies and programs in Boulder County.

Author(s)
The Cadmus Group, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
NeighborWorks H.E.A.T. Squad

NeighborWorks of Western Vermont (NWWVT) contracted with The Cadmus Group, Inc., to evaluate its H.E.A.T. Squad program. The evaluation activities informed two main areas of interest: program and market effects, and impact and cost-effectiveness. To inform the evaluation, Cadmus surveyed participant and non-participant homeowners and interviewed program stakeholders.

Author(s)
U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge
A list of tips from Connecticut's Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge for working with utilities to access energy usage data.
Author(s)
Kellie Stickney, SustainableWorks
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
SustainableWorks
Presentation on the SustainableWorks non-profit general contractor model for supporting energy upgrades in Washington state and lessons learned for implementing a whole house approach.
Author(s)
Energy Trust Oregon (Prepared by Johnson Consulting Group)
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Enhabit

This report presents key findings and recommendations from the process evaluation of Clean Energy Works Oregon's (now Enhabit's) energy efficiency financing program. Table 1 provides a good list of key process evaluation research questions which may help others scope comprehensive process evaluations.

Author(s)
The Cadmus Group, Inc.
Publication Date

Pacific Power contracted with The Cadmus Group, Inc., to conduct impact and process evaluations of its Washington low-income weatherization program for the program period extending from March 2009 through February 2011. The impact evaluation assessed energy savings and cost-effectiveness associated with the program, and in doing so quantified select non-energy benefits. The process evaluation assessed program delivery and efficacy, potential bottlenecks, opportunities for improvements, and participants’ experiences and satisfaction with the program.

Author(s)
Washington State University Energy Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Seattle Community Power Works

Evaluation reports from the Seattle Community Power Works program. The city of Seattle worked to encourage efficiency upgrades for single-family and multi-family residences, small businesses, hospitals, and large commercial and municipal buildings.

Author(s)
Washington State University Energy Program
Publication Date

This mid-program evaluation includes extensive analysis of program sectors, including results of surveys of participants, and summarizes lessons learned to date.

Author(s)
Washington State University Energy Program
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Community Power Works
This mid-program evaluation includes extensive analysis of program sectors, including results of surveys of participants, and summarizes lessons learned to date.
Author(s)
Melissa Glickman, Boulder County, Colorado (now EnergySmart)
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
EnergySmart Colorado

EnergySmart Colorado uses surveys and a customer database to get feedback from homeowners that helps fine-tune program services and operations.

Author(s)
Betsy Kleinfelder, The Sustainability Institute
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
CharlestonWISE
As part of its "intentional learning" process, Charleston WISE collects information from homeowners that helps the program systematically test assumptions and implement continuous improvement.
Author(s)
BetterBuildings for Michigan
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
BetterBuildings for Michigan
This report summarizes the results of five neighborhood sweeps, covering more than 2,000 households in Michigan.
Author(s)
Booz and Company
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energy Impact Illinois
This presentation provides the results of a 1,600-person survey of mid- to high-income households conducted by Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) to gauge attitudes toward home improvements and energy efficiency upgrades.
Author(s)
Marlowe Kulley, Portland Bureau of Planning & Sustainability
Publication Date
This presentation is a tour of the project evaluation and data collection system that Clean Energy Works Portland uses to survey its participating residents.
Author(s)
Suzanne Russo, Pecan Street Project Inc.
Publication Date
Headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin, Pecan Street Inc. is a research and development organization focused on developing and testing advanced technology, business model and customer behavior surrounding advanced energy management systems. Their flagship effort is the Pecan Street Demonstration Project that began in an Austin community. This presentation discusses collecting and using data to assess and improve the Pecan Street Project.
Author(s)
Kerry O'Neill, Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge

This presentation shares how the Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge collected and evaluated data and used the results to improve its program.

Author(s)
Energize Phoenix
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Phoenix

This report provides results, lessons learned and recommendations for driving energy efficiency in existing building on an urban scale based on the first year of the Energize Phoenix energy efficiency program.

Author(s)
Dimitrios Laloudakis, Energize Phoenix
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energize Phoenix
This presentation outlines the techniques for collecting and evaluating energy efficiency program evaluation data, including data related to marketing efforts.
Author(s)
Lilah Glick, Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (GCEA)
Presentation from the Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance on how to conduct a real-time evaluation of programs and services.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Low Income Energy Efficiency (LIEE) Program

This document constitutes the final report for the 2009-2010 process evaluation of the Low Income Energy Efficiency (LIEE) program operated by the four investor-owned utilities (IOU) of California for the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). The IOUs include: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), Southern California Gas (SCG), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Although the program is now referred to as Energy Savings Assistance Program (ESAP), this report will employ the nomenclature used for the 2009-2010 program cycle.

Author(s)
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA)

This report summarizes a home segmentation study conducted by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The study looked at 1,012 homeowners across New York to evaluate how they view home energy consumption, the importance they place on energy saving solutions, and why they would consider taking advantage of programs that increase energy efficiency.

Author(s)
Kat Donnelly, Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge
This presentation outlines the steps Connecticut's Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge program took to obtain and sort useful feedback from surveys and volunteer observations.
Author(s)
Fairbank, Maslin, Maullin, Metz & Associates
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energy Upgrade California
This presentation describes California property owners' specific interest, awareness, and perceptions regarding energy use, energy efficiency, home energy upgrades, and related topics.
Author(s)
Los Angeles County, California
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Energy Upgrade California
This report describes California property owners' specific interest, awareness, and perceptions regarding energy use, energy efficiency, home energy upgrades, and related topics. The study results were used for program design and to design and support marketing and outreach campaigns that encouraged energy upgrades
Author(s)
Research Into Action, Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
Enhabit

This report describes the process evaluation of a pilot project in Portland Oregon that informed the refinement and expansion of the program statewide into Clean Energy Works Oregon (now Enhabit).

Author(s)
KEMA Inc.
Publication Date
Organizations or Programs
California Alternate Rate for Energy (CARE) Program,
Low Income Energy Efficiency (LIEE) Program

This report presents the findings of Phase 2 of the California Public Utilities Commission Low Income Needs Assessment Study. The results of the needs assessment suggest that, over time, the programs have effectively targeted and provided services to low-income households that have the greatest need.